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It is performed only once in the development process and can influence the localization pro cess arthritis in back of thigh buy discount medrol 4 mg, which impacts ease of technical issues arthritis in back l3 l4 cheap 16 mg medrol mastercard, costs and business processes arthritis in hands and feet symptoms generic 16mg medrol with mastercard. While translation is the process transferring content from one language (original language) to slowing down arthritis in fingers generic medrol 16mg mastercard another language (target language) by preserving the context, lo calization process is more specialized and oriented to a final product in order to meet expectations of the global market, as indicated on web pages of Lion bridge. Pym (2005) defines localization as translation + factor X, where factor X includes internationalization, adaptation, controlled writing, use of translation memories, integration of machine translation, project management, i. In the localiization proceess, various experts engaaged in prodduct adaptatiion are in volved, such as engineers, transs slators, projeect managerrs and test eengineers. Globalizaation is relatted with salees and markeeting activitiies in order to present the produuct at internaational markket. Localization also includes other types of software, such as tools to track changes on Web sites, word counting tools, currency converters, etc. Video games also do not use controlled languages (except programming language) or any scheme in the text creation phase. Moreover, game makers often employ profes sional writers who create a story for a particular title. The second difference between video games and technical translation is the me dium. As in Mateusz (2014), video game translation is interwoven with the source code of a particu lar product. Numerous companies and associations offer their services on the market for localization, although sometimes it seems as a major and perhaps unnecessary investment, localization is today considerably important process for increased competitiveness in the global marketplace. Co operation with the localization can start from the preparation of the software that will use localization, continuing in regular intervals in order to avoid pauses in production, also in Soh et al. Software preparation through interna tionalization greatly facilitates the localization team to see and test the context of use, thus increasing the ability to test the integration of localization and the quality of the translation. Quality control through communication with the lo calization team within the development process, and clear use of unambiguous words leads to successful localization project, as in Cem et al. According to Erbil (2016), different game companies follow today different levels of localization, pointing out four levels of localization: the first level when localization is not performed because of cutting costs. Katalinic, Integrating Localization into a Video Game Another area of relevant development are online games, which often incorpo rate chat among players while the game is being played. This implies a need for simultaneous translation of text chat and chat based on speech, as online games have no regard for linguistic boundaries. This raises the scope for research into the application of natural language processing systems. In addition to monetizing localization, it also enables the convergence of creativity writing to many users who can enjoy localized texts, which would not be possible if the game was released in a lan guage they do not know. By publishing a localized game to a new market, it is possible to acquire a new community that monitors our product and becomes a future buyer if the video game has multiple sequels or downloadable content. If the budget is limited and does not allow localizing the entire game, this problem can be approached by localizing only the application keywords and thus accessing more actively global market where users potentially use the language of the application, but search in their native language. Users tend to buy more if content is written in their first language and in that way localization is contributing to monetization by opening up markets to nu merous customers as potential buyers. According to data on Statista web pages, Asia and especially China rapidly enter the global video game market, which is expected with regard to the population and the economic growth of the middle class. Integrating localization Challenges that localization poses through integration within the game are not negligible and the localization process should be considered when setting up a project. Localization process can start together with the development of the software product and online documentation. For this part, translation memory technology can be used, as it enables cooperative work, sharing and updating and interface localization tools to translate resource files. Late integration of lo calization within the game is leading to increased pressure on production, since it is necessary to integrate, check the integration accuracy as well as the locali zation itself, within the short time that is set in the production cycle. If there is a game containing texts that needs to be localized, it is suggested to use a central place.

When children play arthritis fingers climbing 16 mg medrol, however gouty arthritis diet recipes purchase genuine medrol online, it was recognised that there are many opportunities for skill development arthritis in index fingers order generic medrol from india, for example language and social skills arthritis kinds order cheap medrol on-line, gross and fine motor skills, sorting and sequencing. There was more general consensus, however, that the benefits of play are related to its promotion of self-esteem, emotional wellbeing and resilience. When children engage in a task as though it is play, it was suggested, behavioural thresholds are lowered and they are able to try things out with only self-set targets and goals. As a result, resilience and esteem grow and children develop the confidence to meet physical, intellectual and emotional challenges. Children learn and develop through activities other than play, Howard argued, but they learn and develop more effectively through activities that are play. However, Baumgartner argued that viewing play as a complex set of different behaviours would be more productive in relation to understanding its contribution to development. In general, however, there was consensus that all types of play can be beneficial, and Howard argued that children need the opportunity to experience a variety of activities that will develop their full repertoire of play skills. Brostrom, Texter and Muchacka particularly emphasised the importance of socio-dramatic play in children. In Spain, Marin suggested that play is not completely separated from learning, and is only valued as a means to certain valued results, such as learning, but not as a process on its own right. Benefits and concerns regarding screen-based play In response to a question concerning current anxieties regarding the recent rapid increase in screen-based play, the European experts took a rather balanced view. As we have reviewed earlier in this report, if the amount of time children spend playing outdoors has declined, this appears to be a result of changing attitudes to risk in urban environments rather than to an increase in video game technology. The experts also point out clear evidence of a range of benefits arising from screen-based play. For example, there are studies that indicate physical benefits of video games, such as quickened reaction time. They are also often very active and mentally stimulating and cooperative, with many children playing games with friends and with parents. Indeed, there is some evidence that well-designed videogames can enrich play resources for children and their families. On the one hand Brostrom and Texter expressed the view that the full potential of play can only be unlocked by active teachers or parents. However, these recommendations varied mostly in response to the situation in their own country rather than in substance. Clearly, both recognise that there is value in a variety of play situations, and so would recommend a balanced diet of free, child-initiated play, play between children and adults, and so on.

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Connecting Global Priorities: Biodiversity and Human Health 267 economic valuation arthritis care medication cheapest medrol, covers dierent types of value and trade-os equate arthritis pain gluten free 4 mg medrol visa. The development of frameworks of appreciation arthritis relief for dogs home remedies cheap 4mg medrol amex, and includes various categories of this kind involve synthesizing the abundant but response at the level of public policies rheumatoid arthritis mechanism buy generic medrol 16mg online, voluntary often scattered body of literature that analyses non mechanisms and markets (Box 1). This may be the case especially where the spiritual or cultural values of nature are strong. For example, protected areas such as national parks have historically been established in response to a sense of collective heritage or patrimony, a perception of shared cultural or social value being placed on treasured landscapes, charismatic species or natural wonders. Protective legislation or voluntary agreements can be appropriate responses where biodiversity values are generally recognized and accepted. In such circumstances, monetary valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services may be unnecessary, or even counterproductive if it is seen as contrary to cultural norms or fails to reect a plurality of values. Demonstrating Value: Demonstrating value in economic terms is sometimes useful for policymakers and others, in reaching decisions that consider the full costs and benets of a proposed use of an ecosystem, rather than only costs or values that enter markets in the form of private goods. Examples include calculating the costs and benets of conserving the ecosystem services provided by wetlands in treating human wastes and controlling oods, compared to the cost of providing the same services by building water treatment facilities or concrete ood defences. Valuation is best applied for assessing the consequences of changes resulting from alternative management options, rather than attempting to estimate the total value of ecosystems. Most valuation studies do not assess the full range of ecosystem services and not all biodiversity values can be reliably estimated using existing methods. The identication of all signicant changes in ecosystem services is a necessary rst step even if all of them are not monetized. Capturing Value: this nal tier involves the introduction of mechanisms that incorporate the values of ecosystems into decision-making, through incentives and price signals. This can include payments for ecosystem services, reforming environmentally harmful subsidies, introducing tax breaks for conservation, or creating new markets for sustainably produced goods and ecosystem services. It needs to come along with reinforcing rights over natural resources and liability for environmental damage. The challenge for decision makers is to assess when market-based solutions to biodiversity loss are likely to be culturally acceptable, as well as eective, ecient and equitable. Shaping behaviour and iii) Addressing the signicant gap in knowledge on what works, how and why, in order to engaging communities for develop evidence-based best practices that can transformational change be scaled-up for sustainability. Human behaviour is central to the biodiversity human health nexus: our actions, as producers Tackling these and other aspects of human and consumers of energy, natural resources and behaviour change can have far-reaching manufactured products, are prime determinants implications for poverty alleviation, human health of both the ability to conserve biodiversity and and biodiversity conservation (Allegrante 2015; to promote human health. Understanding the drivers of human behaviour the social sciences can assist us to motivate requires moving beyond rational individualistic choices consistent with health and biodiversity behaviour models in order to appreciate the objectives and to develop new approaches through, complexities of daily life, social and economic inter alia, better understanding of behavioural incentives for change, and actual processes of change, production and consumption patterns, change (Hargreaves 2011; Pons-Vigues et al. Designing eective has been argued that intervention eorts that also and sustainable behaviour change interventions seek to modify the physical, social, political, and also demands that we account for the perceptions, economic environments in which people live and needs, capacities, heterogeneity and constraints make health and environment related decisions of communities. Engaging with human behaviour can jointly deliver health, environmental and change also involves understanding complexity at social benets. Allegrande 2015 and references dierent scales, which requires multi-disciplinary therein; Pons-Vigues et al. In addition to the need to further to promote behaviour change on a global scale strengthen the scientic base of a broad range include: of issues at the intersect of biodiversity and health, there is also a need for policymakers i) Understanding the drivers of human and practitioners to draw deeply from the social behaviour and the role of micro and macro sciences (psychology, anthropology, sociology, level processes (including political, social, political science and other elds) in order to environmental and economic institutions and inform strategies (Glanz and Bishop 2010). Connecting Global Priorities: Biodiversity and Human Health 269 and consumption patterns is essential (Kuhnlein excludes sucient recognition of related structural et al. Interventions can be very broadly divided political, economic and physical environments in into top-down and bottom-up approaches. Tese which people live (Golden and Earp 2012; Pons can take many forms and make use of dierent Vigues et al. Whatever the approach, it is important that as developing or reformulating technologies interventions be tailored to local, social, cultural, as agents of behaviour change (Newson et al.

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